华体会不出款

DIYIHUANBAOWANGWEININTIGONGZUIXINDEHUANBAOZIXUN、HUANBAOZHANHUI、HUANBAOXIANGMUZHAOBIAOCAIGOUDENGXINXI

污泥基生物炭的制备技术及环境应用与研究热点

2021-08-30信息来源 : 净水万事屋

ZHAI YAO:WUNITANHUAJISHUSHIWUNIZIYUANHUACHUZHIDEYANJIUREDIANZHIYI。TONGGUOZHONGGUOQIKANQUANWENSHUJUKUHEWeb of ScienceHEXINHEJISHUJUKU,DUI2000NIAN—2020NIANFABIAODEGUANYUWUNIJISHENGWUTANDEWENXIANJINXINGJIANSUOYUZONGSHUFENXI。XIANGXIFENXILEWUNIJISHENGWUTANYANJIUDENIANDUFAWENLIANGHEYANJIUREDIAN,TAOLUNLEXIANYOUZHIBEIJISHUDEYOUQUEDIANJIWEILAIFAZHANQUSHI,TONGSHI,JIEHEWUNIJISHENGWUTANDELIHUAXINGZHITEZHENG,TANTAOQIZAIWURANWUGUDING、TURANGGAILIANGJIYANHUANQIHOUBIANHUADENGLINGYUYINGYONGDEYANJIUXIANZHUANG。

随着经济的持续快速发展,我国城市污水处理量不断提升,导致污泥产量与日俱增。截至2019年底,全国城市污泥产量突破1 175万t(干重),并将以约10%的速度逐年增加。然而由于长期以来存在的“重水轻泥”现象,我国约80%的污泥并未得到科学有效的处置。当前,我国污泥处置的主要方式包括填埋法、焚烧法和堆肥法等。在城市中,由于土地资源的限制,填埋法和堆肥法在污泥处理中的占比逐渐降低;焚烧法虽然实现了污泥的减量化处置,但污泥的高含水率使其耗能成本高,且燃烧产物可能导致空气二次污染。污泥处置成为“无废城市”建设面临的重要问题之一,实现由“被消灭”向“被利用”的理念转变,是城市污泥处置技术未来的发展方向。

JINNIANLAI,JIANGWUNIGEJUEKONGQI,JINXINGWUYANGREJIEZHIBEISHENGWUTANDEJISHUKAISHISHOUDAOXUEZHEQINGLAI。WUNIREJIEDECHANWU(SHENGWUTAN、REJIEJIAOYOUHEREJIEQIDENG)JUNJUYOUDUOZHONGLIYONGJIAZHI,SHIXIANLEWUNIDE“ZIYUANHUA”LIYONG。QIZHONG,SHENGWUTANBIBIAOMIANJIDA、BIAOMIANJITUANFENGFUQIEDAN、LIN、JIADENGYUANSUHANLIANGGAO,SHILIANGHAODEHUANJINGXIUFUCAILIAO,BINGKEWEIZHIWUSHENGZHANGTIGONGYIDINGDEYANGFEN;REJIEJIAOYOUHEREJIEQIJUYOUYIDINGDEKERANXING,KEZUOWEIQIANZAINENGYUAN。REJIESHIWUNIZHONGNANYIBEIFENLIHEQUCHUDECHIJIUXINGYOUJIWURANWUHEKANGSHENGSUDENGYOUJICHENGFENBEIWANQUANREJIE,WUYANGHUANJINGZEJIDACHENGDUJIANSHAOLEDANYANGHUAWU、LIUYANGHUAWUDESHENGCHENG,ZHONGJINSHUZEBEISHENGCHENGDESHENGWUTANLAOLAOXIFUGUDING,CONGERSHIXIANWUNIDE“WUHAIHUA”CHUZHI。2020NIAN7YUE,GUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEI、ZHUFANGCHENGXIANGJIANSHEBULIANHEFABU《CHENGZHENSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULISHESHIBUDUANBANQIANGRUOXIANGSHISHIFANGAN》,MINGQUETICHU“JIAKUAITUIJINWUNIWUHAIHUACHUZHIHEZIYUANHUALIYONG”。

WEIQUANMIANLEJIEWUNIJISHENGWUTANDEFAZHANQUSHIYUYANJIUREDIAN,BENWENDUIZHONGGUOQIKANQUANWENSHUJUKUHEWeb of ScienceSHUJUKUJIN20NIAN(2000NIAN—2020NIAN)SHOULUDEWUNIJISHENGWUTANDEXIANGGUANYANJIUJINXINGLEWENXIANTONGJIYUFENXI。BENWENZHEZHONGTAOLUNWUNIJISHENGWUTANDENIANDUFAWENLIANG、YANJIUREDIAN、ZHIBEIJISHUYUZHUYAOTEZHENG,YIQIWEIXIANGGUANYANJIUZHETIGONGLILUNCANKAO,WEITUIDONGWUNIZIYUANHUALIYONGZHULI。

01 WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEFAWENLIANG

发文量及其年变化趋势不仅反映了科研工作者对本领域研究的关注度,还体现了该学科或领域的发展速度。在中国期刊全文数据库,分别以 “污泥基生物炭”、“污泥炭”、“污泥裂解”、“污泥碳化”、“污泥炭化”、“‘污泥’和‘碳化’”、“‘污泥’和‘裂解’”为标题和主题检索近20年(2000年—2020年)收录的相关文献,逐条整理,并去掉重复或不相关文献,分别获取有效文献381篇和1 216篇[图1(a)]。需要指出的是,针对污泥热解制备生物炭的相关文献中,存在将“碳化”误用为“炭化”的现象,因此,本文对“碳化”和“炭化”均进行了相关检索。在Web of Science核心数据库,分别以“sludge bio”、“pyrolysis of sludge”、“carbonization of sludge”为标题和主题检索,经整理分别获取有效论文1 131篇和4 949篇[图1(b)]。

YOUTU1KEZHI,KEDAZHIKEJIANGWUNIJISHENGWUTANDEXIANGGUANYANJIUFENWEIYIXIA3GEJIEDUAN:MENGYAJIEDUAN(2000NIAN—2005NIAN),ZHONGYINGWENQIKANFAWENLIANGJISHAO,YANJIUSHANGCHUYUCHUBUTANSUOZHONG;QIBUJIEDUAN(2005NIAN—2015NIAN),FAWENLIANGHUANMANZENGJIA,WUNIJISHENGWUTANYANJIUKAISHIQIBU;KUAISUZENGZHANGJIEDUAN(2015NIAN—2020NIAN),ZHONGYINGWENQIKANFAWENLIANGKUAISUZENGJIA,WUNIJISHENGWUTANYANJIUXUNSUFAZHAN。GUOJIAZHENGCEJIJIJINFUCHIKENENGSHIWOGUOWUNIJISHENGWUTANYANJIUDEZHONGYAOTUIDONGLI。2006NIAN,GUOJIAJIANGSHUITIWURANKONGZHIYUZHILIKEJIZUOWEI《GUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIKEXUEHEJISHUFAZHANGUIHUAGANGYAO(2006—2020NIAN)》6GEZHONGDAZHUANXIANGJIHUAZHIYI,WEIWOGUOSHUIWURANFANGZHIHESHUISHENGTAIXIUFUTIGONGZHONGYAOKEJIZHICHENGDETONGSHI,KAIQILEWUNIJISHENGWUTANDECHUBUTANJIU。2015NIAN,GUOJIA“SHUISHITIAO”MINGQUEZHICHU“WUSHUICHULISHESHICHANSHENGDEWUNIYINGJINXINGWENDINGHUA、WUHAIHUAHEZIYUANHUACHULICHUZHI”,JIDADITUIDONGLEWUNIJISHENGWUTANDEXIANGGUANLILUNYUJISHUYANJIU。YINGWENQIKANFAWENLIANGDEZENGJIA,YIFANGMIANYOUYUGUOJISHEHUIDUIWUNICHUZHIDEZHONGSHI,LINGYIFANGMIANDEYIYUWOGUOWUNIYANJIUDEBUDUANSHENRU。

XUYAOZHICHUDESHI,ZAIQUANQIUXINGUANYIQINGBAOFADEBEIJINGXIA,CHENGZHENWUSHUIJIWUNIZHONGJUNYIJIANCHUBINGDUDECUNZAI,ZHEISHIWUNICHUZHIZAISHIXIANZIYUANHUAHEJIANLIANGHUADETONGSHI,GENGJIAZHUZHONGWUHAIHUACHUZHI。CHUANTONGDETIANMAIHEDUIFEIDENGCHUZHIFANGSHINANYIWANQUANSHAMIEWUNIZHONGDEBINGYUANTI,ERWUNITANHUAGUOCHENGKEYITONGGUOGAOWENJIANGBINGDUTANHUA,SHIXIANWANQUANMIEJUN。YINCI,SUIZHEQUANQIUJINRU“HOUYIQINGSHIDAI”,WUNICHUZHIDEYAOQIUJINYIBUTISHENG,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEXIANGGUANYANJIUJIANGGENGJIASHENRU,QIGONGCHENGYINGYONGYEJIANGDEDAOGENGJINYIBUDITUIGUANG。

02 WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEYANJIUREDIAN

关键词作为科技论文的重要部分,是论文研究内容的高度概括,关键词的共现网络分析,在一定程度上可以反映出该学科的研究热点。因此,为了更加直观地综述近年来污泥基生物炭的研究热点,本文采用CiteSpace对所检索文献的关键词进行分析,结果如图2所示。图中圆形节点的大小反映了关键词出现的频次,节点越大即出现的频次越高。由图2(a)可知,除了“污泥基生物炭”和“生物炭”主题词汇外,“重金属”、“动力学”、“市政污泥”和“含油污泥”为该领域的研究热点词汇;由图2(b)可知,“sewage sludge”、“pyrolysis”、“bio”“adsorption”和“heavy metal”为出现的高频词汇。

综上,“重金属(heavy metal)”是知网论文和Web of Science论文共同的关注热点。其主要原因在于,重金属既是制约污泥资源化利用的关键因素之一,又是实现污泥基生物炭资源化利用的重要作用对象。一方面,文献中涉及的污泥种类繁多,如市政污泥、化工污泥、冶炼污泥等,其中,化工污泥和冶炼污泥等工业污泥中往往重金属含量较高,因此,污泥基生物炭的利用受到制约。尽管实验室研究已经证实,炭化过程虽不能有效去除污泥中的重金属,但可对重金属起到显著固定/稳定化的作用,其浸出毒性低于国家标准限值,然而炭化过程中重金属的固定机制及转化途径尚不完全清晰,含重金属污泥炭化产物的安全性仍存在较大争议。另一方面,与传统生物炭(如植物源生物炭)类似,污泥生物炭也具有比表面积大、空隙发达及官能团丰度等特点,表现出对重金属等污染物巨大的吸附与固定能力,且因其具有廉价和可持续的特性,污泥基生物炭有望成为新的环境功能材料。因此,“重金属(heavy metal)”成为国内外学者探究污泥基生物炭的主要关注点之一。

用于炭化的污泥类型也是研究的重要热点之一。“市政污泥”和“含油污泥”在知网论文中出现频次较高[图2(a)]。“市政污泥”成为该领域研究的热点,主要原因是在诸多污泥种类中,市政污泥的产量最高且污染物含量相对较低。与工业污泥不同,城市污泥中重金属等有害成分含量较低,其炭化产物——生物炭的潜在环境风险更低,因此,污泥基生物炭具有广阔的应用前景。含油污泥因有机成分含量高,尤其是富含持久性有机污染物,炭化的高温过程中可有效破坏有机污染物的结构,缺氧条件则避免了二噁英的产生,从而实现含油污泥减量化、无害化和资源化利用,因此,成为污泥热解炭化研究重点关注的一类。在Web of Science论文中,学者主要采用“sewage sludge”为污泥基生物炭的原料,其出现频次最高[图2(b)],主要包括城镇污水处理厂污泥和工业污水处理厂污泥,这与Singh等的综述结果相近,超过半数的污泥炭化研究对象为“sewage sludge”。

CIWAI,TANHUAGONGYIYESHIWUNIJISHENGWUTANXIANGGUANYANJIUDEREDIANZHIYI。ZAIZHIWANGLUNWENZHONGDE“DONGLIXUE”YUWeb of ScienceLUNWENZHONGDE“pyrolysis”JUNCHENGXIANJIAOGAODEPINCI。TANHUAGONGYIJISHUSHIWUNIJISHENGWUTANLILUNYANJIUHEGONGCHENGYINGYONGDEJICHU,ZHIJIEYINGXIANGWUNITANHUAXIANGGUANCHANYEDEFAZHAN,BEISHOUXUEZHEGUANZHU,YINCI,BENWENHOUXUDUIGAIYANJIUREDIANJINXINGXITONGZONGSHU。

03 WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEZHIBEIJISHU

MUQIAN,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEZHIBEIJISHUZHUYAOBAOKUORELIEJIEJISHUHESHUIRETANHUAJISHU。WUNIREJIESHIZHIZAIGEJUEKONGQIHUODUOXINGQITITIAOJIANXIAJIAREWUNI,SHIYOUJIWUFASHENGRELIEJIE,XINGCHENGJUYOUJIAOGAOLIYONGJIAZHIDEREJIEQI、REJIEJIAOYOUHEREJIECANZHA(JISHENGWUTAN)。DANGQIAN,GUONEIWAIWUNIREJIEJISHUZHUYAOBAOKUOGAOWENREJIE、DIWENREJIEJISHUHEWEIBOREJIEFA。

GAOWENREJIEJISHUSHIZHIREJIEWENDUGAOYU600 ℃,REJIECHANWUYIREJIEQIWEIZHUDEREJIEGONGYI。QIJUTIDETANHUAXITONGBAOKUOWUNIJIESHOUXITONG(WUNIDOUHECHUANSONGDAI)、WUNIGANHUALU、WUNITANHUAXITONG(TANHUALU、YURELUHEZAIRANLU)、FENCHENSHOUJIXITONG、REJIAOHUANXITONG、WEIQICHULIXITONG、TANHUACHANPINLENGQUEHEBAOZHUANGXITONG。TANHUAZHUYAOFENWEIWUNISHUIFENZHENGFAJIEDUAN(100 ℃)、XIFUQITISHIFANGJIEDUAN(200 ℃)、YOUJILIUHUAWUZHUANHUAWEILIUHUAQINGJIEDUAN(300 ℃)、DANHUAWUZHUANHUAWEIANJIEDUAN(500 ℃)HEJIAWAN、YIGUIJIYIYANGHUATANCHANSHENGJIEDUAN(600 ℃)DENG。GAIJISHUTIAOJIANXIA,REJIEQICHANLVGAODA50%,SHENGWUTANZHANBIWEI30%~40%,REJIEJIAOYOUZHANBIWEI10%~20%。JIAOGAODEREJIEQICHANCHULV,SHIDEREJIEDEDAODESHENGWUTANKONGXIDUFENGDU、BIBIAOMIANJIDA,YINCI,GAILEISHENGWUTANDUIZHONGJINSHUJIYOUJIWURANWUJUYOULIANGHAODEXIFUXINGNENG。GAIJISHUQIBUJIAOZAO,DANJISHUGONGYIFUZA、WENDINGXINGDI、GONGCHENGYINGYONGJINZHANHUANMAN。20SHIJIQIBASHINIANDAI,YOURIBENSANLINGZHONGGONGCANYUSHEJIJIANZAODEDIYISUOWUNIGAOWENTANHUACHANGTOURUSHIYONG,QIRICHULILIANGWEI300 t,CHULICHENGBENWEI42MEIYUAN/t。2012NIAN,WOGUOSHOUJIAWUNIGAOWENREJIETANHUACHULIXIANGMUZAIWUHANTONGGUOYANSHOU,SUIHOUGEDIKAISHILUXUYINJINWUNITANHUAGONGYIYUSHEBEI。

DIWENREJIEJISHUSHIZHIREJIEWENDUDIYU600 ℃,REJIECHANWUYIREJIEJIAOYOUWEIZHUDEREJIEGONGYI,YOUCHENGDIWENREJIEZHIYOUJISHU。GAIJISHUZHONGREJIEJIAOYOUDECHANCHULVKEGAODA30%,QIZHUYAOCHENGFENWEITINGLEI、ZHIFANGZU、FANGXIANGHUAHEWUDENGYOUJIWU,RANZHIJIAOGAO,KEHUISHOUWUNIZHONGYOUJIZHIYUE60%DENENGLIANG。YUGAOWENREJIEJISHUXIANGBI,GAIJISHUGONGYISUOXUWENDUDI、HAONENGXIAO、CAOZUOBIANJIE。2008NIANMEIGUOJIAZHOUJIANCHENGRICHULIWEI575 tDEDIWENTANHUACHANG,2010NIANWOGUOSHANXISHENGJIANCHENGDIYIZUOWUNIDIWENTANHUACHANG。

YUSHANGSHULIANGZHONGZHIJIEJINXINGRENENGCHUANDIDEREJIEJISHUBUTONG,WEIBOREJIEFASHIJIANGWUNIZHIYUWEIBOCHANGZHONG,JIANGWEIBONENGZHUANHUAWEINEINENG,TISHENGWUNIWENDU,DADAOLIEJIEDEMUDE。ZHEIZHONGREJIEFANGSHIJUYOUJUNYUNXINGQIANG、JISHIXINGGAOHEJIENENGXIAOGUOHAODENGYOUDIAN,ZHUYAOYONGYUHANYOUWUNIDECHULI。RANERSHOUDAOWEIBOFUSHEQIANGDUHEFANYINGFUDAXIAODEXIANZHI,WEIBOLIEJIEJISHUYIRANQUEFADAGUIMODEGONGYEHUAYINGYONG。

JINNIANLAI,KAISHITANJIUYIZHONGDIWENCIHUALIEJIEJISHU。GAIJISHUTONGGUOCICHANGZUOYONG,SHIQITIFENZIYOUWUXUBIANWEIYOUXU,TISHENGQITIFENZIHUOHUANENG,JIANGDIBEILIEJIEWUZHIFENZIJIANDENEIJULI,SHILIEJIESUOXUWENDUDADAJIANGDI(<350 ℃),TISHENGREJIEXIAOLV,JIANGDINENGHAO。GAIJISHUDEZHUYAOSHEBEIJIXITONGBAOKUOFANYINGFU、UXINGJIAREGUAN、JINQICIHUAKONGQIFENGJI、NEIBUKONGQIXUNHUANZHUANGZHI、SHUIZHENGQICHANSHENGZHUANGZHI、JIAOYOUHUILIUZHUANGZHI、WENDUCHUANGANQIHECHUCHOUTONG。MUQIAN,WUNICIHUADIWENREJIEYICHUBUYINGYONGYUFUZHOUSHIMINHOUJINGXIWUSHUICHULICHANGJIANSHEDEWUNICHULICHUZHIXIANGMU。

SHUIRETANHUAJISHUSHIZHIJIANGGAOHANSHUILV(YUE80%)DEWUNITOURUYIDINGWENDU(150~250 ℃)HEYALI(2~3.5 MPa)DEMIBIFANYINGQIZHONG,WUNIZHONGWEISHENGWUXIBAOBEIPOSUI,DAFENZIYOUJIWUFASHENGSHUIJIE,JIAOTIJIEGOUBEIPOHUAI,ZUIZHONGDEDAOTANCAILIAODEWUNITANHUAJISHU。YUREJIESHENGWUTANXIANGBI,SHUIRESHENGWUTANHANYANGGUANNENGTUANGENGJIAFENGFU,NENGWEIWURANWUDEXIFUYUGUDINGTIGONGGENGDUODEHUOXINGWEIDIAN。MUQIAN,WUNISHUIRETANHUACHULIJISHUZAIGUONEISHANGWUGONGYEGUIMOYINGYONGDEGONGYIHELIUCHENGXIANGGUANJUTICANSHU,QIXILIEZHUANGBEIJIDAIYANFA。CIWAI,WEISHIXIANDUITANHUAGUOCHENGJIQICHANWUDEJINGQUEKONGZHI,SHANGXUKAIFADUISHUIRECHULIGUOCHENGJINXINGYUANWEIGUANCEDEXINXINGJIANCEYIQI。

04 WUNIJISHENGWUTANDELIHUAXINGZHI

SHUICHANGWUNIJISHENGWUTANDELIHUAXINGZHIJIYINGYONGRUTU3SUOSHI。WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEWULIXINGZHIZHUYAOBAOKUOKONGXIDU、BIBIAOMIANJI、CHISHUIXINGHEBIAOMIANDIANHEDENG。REJIEWENDUXIANZHUYINGXIANGWUNIJISHENGWUTANDEKONGXIDUHEBIBIAOMIANJI。YIBANERYAN,SUIZHEREJIEWENDUDESHENGGAO,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEKONGXIDUHEBIBIAOMIANJIZENGDA。YuanDENGYANJIUFAXIAN,DANGREJIEWENDUCONG300 ℃TISHENGZHI500 ℃SHI,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEKONGXIDUHEBIBIAOMIANJIFENBIECONG27 μL/gHE20.2 m2/gZENGZHI53 μL/gHE52.5 m2/g。QIZHUYAOYUANYINSHIDANGWENDUJIAODISHI,WUNIZHONGDEYOUJIWUHUIFANENGLICHAQIEYILENGNINGDUSAIKONGDAO;WENDUJIAOGAOSHI,WUNIZHONGYOUJIWUDEHUIFANENGLIQIANG、HUIFALIANGZENGJIA,SHISHENGWUTANDEKONGXIDUHEBIBIAOMIANJIXIANZHUZENGJIA。LEISIDEJIEGUOCHUXIANZAIUdayangaDENGDEYANJIUZHONG,GAIYANJIUJINYIBUZHICHU,WUNITANHUAGUOCHENGZHONGCUNZAILINJIEWENDU,DANGLIEJIEWENDUGAOYUGAIZHISHI,WUNIZHONGXIANWEISUFASHENGLIEJIE,SHENGWUTANBIBIAOMIANJIXUNSUZENGJIA。LIRU,LIEJIEWENDUCONG400 ℃ZENGJIAZHI700 ℃SHI,SHENGWUTANBIBIAOMIANJIJINCONG37.9 m2/gTISHENGZHI44.1 m2/g,SUIZHEWENDUZENGJIAZHI800 ℃,BIBIAOMIANJIJIHUZENGJIA1BEI(81.6 m2/g)。RANERYOUYUQUESHAOHUOHUAGUOCHENG,WUNISHENGWUTANDEBIBIAOMIANJITONGCHANGXIAOYUHUOXINGTANDEBIBIAOMIANJI(YUE200 m2/g),QIYINGYONGGONGNENGYERUOYUHUOXINGTAN。REJIEWENDUDEBIANHUATONGYANGYINGXIANGSHENGWUTANDECHISHUIXING,SUIZHEREJIEWENDUDEZENGJIA,WUNIZHONGZHIFANGZUHUAHEWUHUIFALIANGZHUJIANTISHENG,SHENGWUTANDEQINSHUIXINGZENGQIANG,CHISHUINENGLITIGAO。WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEBIAOMIANDIANHETEXINGBUJINSHOUDAOREJIEWENDUDEZHIYUE,HAISHOUDAOSHENGWUTANSUOCHUHUANJINGpHDEYINGXIANG。REJIEWENDUZENGJIA,SHENGWUTANDEDENGDIANDIANTISHENG,DANTISHENGFUDUWEIRUO,ZAI3.0~5.0,YINCI,ZAIZHONGXINGTIAOJIANXIASHENGWUTANCHENGXIANBIAOMIANFUDIANTEXING。

WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEHUAXUEXINGZHIZHUYAOBAOKUOpH、YANGFENJIAOHUAN、GUTANNENGLIJIBIAOMIANJITUANDENG。WUNIJISHENGWUTANDESUANJIANDUSHOUDAOLIEJIEWENDUDEYINGXIANG。TONGCHANG,ZAIDIWENTIAOJIANXIA,SHENGWUTANDESUANJIANDUJIEJINZHONGXING,SUIZHEWENDUDEZENGJIA,pHZHUJIANTISHENG,QIZHUYAOYUANYINSHISUIZHEREJIEWENDUDESHENGGAO,YOUJISUANDENGSUANXINGWUZHIHUIFAHELIEJIELIANGZENGJIA,TONGSHI,YOUJIDANYIZHUANHUACHENGLEIBIDINGDEZAHUANJIEGOU。RANERUdayangaDENGYANJIUFAXIAN,REJIEWENDUCONG400 ℃ZENGJIAZHI600 ℃SHI,SHENGWUTANDEpHZHICONG7.1TISHENGZHI8.4,DANGWENDUTISHENGZHI800 ℃,SHENGWUTANDEpHZHIQUEJIANGZHI6.7。ZHEIZHONGpHSUIWENDUSHENGGAOERXIAJIANGDEQUSHIYECHUXIANZAIGaoDENGDEYANJIUZHONG,QIYUANYINKENENGSHISUIZHELIEJIEWENDUDESHENGGAO,SHENGWUTANZHONGTIEYUANSUZHANBIZENGJIA,YIYUSHUIJIECHANSHENGH+。SHIZHENGWUNIZHONGHANYOUDALIANGDAN、LINHEJIADENGZHIWUBIXUDALIANGYUANSU,QIEJUYOUTIE、MENGHEXINDENGBIXUWEILIANGYUANSU,ZHEIXIEYINGYANGCHENGFENZAIWUNITANHUADEGUOCHENGZHONGDEYIBEIBAOLIUXIALAI,CIWAI,WUNIJISHENGWUTANKEYITISHENGTURANGYANGLIZIJIAOHUANLIANGJIYOUJITANHANLIANG,JINERGAISHANTURANGFEILI,TISHENGNONGZUOWUCHANLIANG。SongDENGZHICHU,YUZHIWUJISHENGWUTANXIANGBI,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDETANDANBIJIAODI(6.4~9.2),KEYIZUOWEIYOUXIAODEDANYUAN,CUJINWEISHENGWUJIZHIWUSHENGZHANG,GAIYANJIUFAXIAN,DANGSHENGWUTANYUTURANGDEHUNHEBIWEI1∶5SHI,DASUANDESHENGWULIANGSHIKONGBAIZUDEJIN3BEI。WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEGUTANGONGNENGZHUYAOTONGGUOCUJINZHIWUSHENGZHANGDEZUOYONGSHIXIAN,SHENGCHAN1 kgWUNIJISHENGWUTANXIANGDANGYUSHIFANG1.16 kg CO2,JINGUANGAIZHIGAOYUCHANGJIANDEZHIWUJISHENGWUTAN,DANRENGDIYUSHENGCHAN1 kgHUOXINGTANDETANPAIFANG(1.44 kg CO2)。WUNIJISHENGWUTANHANYOUFENGFUDEBIAOMIANJITUAN,ZHUYAOBAOKUOSUOJI(-COOH)、XIANANJI(-NHR)、QIANGJI(-OH)HETANGJI(C=O)DENG。BIAOMIANJITUANDEHANLIANGSHOUDAOREJIEWENDUYINGXIANG,LIRU,ZAI300 ℃XIALIEJIEDEDAODESHENGWUTAN,QIBIAOMIANHANYOUFENGFUDEXIANANJI,SUIZHEWENDUSHENGGAO,XIANANJIZHUJIANBEIPOHUAI。GONGCUNREJIEWUHEQITIHUANJINGTONGYANGYINGXIANGSHENGWUTANBIAOMIANJITUANHANLIANG。ZAIGEJUEKONGQITIAOJIAN(RUDANQIHUANJING)XIA,SHENGWUTANBIAOMIANJIHUNANYIXINGCHENGHANYANGGUANNENGTUAN;ERFUZHISUAN、FULISUANJILINSHIGAODENGTIANJIAJIZEKEYIYOUXIAOZENGJIAWUNIJISHENGWUTANBIAOMIANJITUANDEHANLIANG。

05 WUNIJISHENGWUTANDEYINGYONG

WUNIJISHENGWUTANJUYOUBIBIAOMIANJIDA、KONGXIDUGAO、BIAOMIANJITUANFENGFUDENGYOUDIAN,ZAIHUANJINGXIUFULINGYUDEDAOGUANGFANGUANZHU,ZHUYAOSHEJIWURANWUGUDING、TURANGGAILIANG、YANHUANWENSHIXIAOYING、CUIHUAHECHUNENGDENG。

DUIZHONGJINSHUJICHANGJIANYOUJIWUDEXIFUYUGUDING,SHIWUNIJISHENGWUTANYANJIUDEREDIAN,YESHIQIZIYUANHUALIYONGJI“YIFEIZHIFEI”DEZHONGYAOTIXIAN。WUNIJISHENGWUTANDUIZHONGJINSHUHEYOUJIWUDEXIFURUBIAO1SUOSHI,JIEGUOXIANSHI,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDUIWURANWUDEXIFUGUDINGSHOUDAOREJIEWENDU、WURANWULEIXING、RONGYEpHJIWUNILEIXINGDEYINGXIANG。DUIYUZHONGJINSHU,WUNISHENGWUTANDUIQIXIFUJIZHIYUCHUANTONGSHENGWUTANLEISI,ZHUYAOBAOKUOLIZIJIAOHUAN、CHENDIANZUOYONG、LUOHEZUOYONG、YANGLIZI-πXIANGHUZUOYONG、JINGDIANXIFU、YANGHUAHAIYUANDENG。GaoDENGXUANYONGCHENGZHENWUSHUICHULIWUNIWEIYUANLIAO,ZAIDANQITIAOJIANXIAFENBIEJING300、500、700 ℃GAOWENLIEJIEDEDAOWUNISHENGWUTAN,DUICd2+JINXINGXIFUGUDINGYANJIU,JIEGUOXIANSHI,REJIEWENDUWEI500 ℃SHI,SHENGWUTANDUICd2+DEXIFUNENGLIZUIDA,WEI110.93 mg/g,QIXIFUJIZHIWEIYANGLIZI-πXIANGHUZUOYONG,ZHANBIWEI59.2%~62.9%。CIWAI,GAIYANJIUJINYIBUZHICHU,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDUICd2+DEXIFUNENGLI(95.24~110.93 mg/g)GAOYUCHUANTONGSHENGWUTAN(6.72~49.26 mg/g)HEHUOXINGTAN(2.50~12.64 mg/g)。YUZHONGJINSHUBUTONG,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDUIYOUJIWURANWUDEXIFUJIZHIZHUYAOFENWEIBIAOMIANXIFUHEFENPEIZUOYONG。LIRU,AhmadDENGCAIYONGXIFUDONGLIXUEMONI,FAXIANWUNIJISHENGWUTANDUIYAJIAJILANDEXIFUZHUYAOWEIBIAOMIANHUAXUEXIFU,ZUIDAXIFUNENGLIKEDA19.2 mg/g。

WUNIJISHENGWUTANTONGGUOGAISHANTURANGJIEGOU、PINGHENGYANSHUIFENBUJITISHENGYOUXIAOYANGFENHANLIANGDENGTUJINGXIANZHUTISHENGTURANGFEILI,BEIRENWEISHIHUANJINGYOUHAOXINGTURANGGAILIANGJI。ZAITURANGZHONGSHIJIAWUNIJISHENGWUTANHOU,TURANGQUANDAN、YOUJITAN、HEITAN、SUXIAOLIN、SUXIAOJIAFENBIEZENGJIA1.5、1.9、4.5、5.6、0.4BEIYISHANG,YOUYUZHIWUKUANGZHIYINGYANGDETISHENG,ZUOWUSHENGWULIANGSUIZHEWUNIJISHENGWUTANTIANJIALIANGDEZENGJIAERCHENGBILIZENGZHANG,PINGJUNZENGFUKEDA74%。LEISIDE,SongDENGYANJIUFAXIAN,WUNIJISHENGWUTANKEYIZENGJIATURANGDEDAN、LINHEJIADENGYUANSUDEHANLIANG,CONGERTISHENGDASUANDECHANLIANG,DANGSHENGWUTANYUTURANGANZHAOZHILIANGBIWEI1∶5HUNHESHI,DASUANCHANLIANGZUIGAO,SHIDUIZHAOZUCHANLIANGDE2.5BEI。CIWAI,GAIYANJIUJINYIBUZHICHU,WUNIJISHENGWUTANDETIANJIAYOUXIAODIYIZHILESHEN、QIAN、NIEHEGEDENGZHONGJINSHUZAIDASUANZHONGDEFUJI。YINCI,WUNIJISHENGWUTANZUOWEITURANGGAILIANGJIBUJINNENGYOUXIAOGAISHANTURANGFEILI,TISHENGZUOWUCHANLIANG,ERQIENENGYOUXIAOJIANGDIWURANWUDESHENGWUHUOXING,DUIYUBAOZHANGLIANGSHIANQUANJUYOUZHONGDAYIYI。

WUNIJISHENGWUTANDUIQUANQIUBIANNUANDEYANHUANZUOYONGZHUYAOTONGGUODUIWENSHIQITI(ERYANGHUATAN、YANGHUAERDANHEJIAWANDENG)XIFUGUDINGSHIXIAN。GrutzmacherDENGTONGGUODUIBIWUNIHEWUNIJISHENGWUTANDUINONGTIANTURANGERYANGHUATANSHIFANGDEYINGXIANG,FAXIANYUWUNIXIANGBI,SHIJIAWUNIJISHENGWUTANHOU,TURANGERYANGHUATANDESHIFANGXIAJIANG75%~80%,TONGSHI,GAIYANJIUJINYIBUZHICHU,YUCHUANTONGDANFEIXIANGBI,WUNIJISHENGWUTANKESHINONGTIANYANGHUAERDANSHIFANGLIANGXIAJIANG87%。AwasthiDENGXITONGTANJIUTURANGZHONGSHIJIAWUNIJISHENGWUTANHOUWENSHIQITIDEPAIFANGGUILV,JIEGUOXIANSHI,SHIJIASHENGWUTANDI2 dHOU,ERYANGHUATANHEJIAWANSHIFANGKAISHIFANGHUAN,SUIZHESHIJIACHENGSHUQI(maturation phase)DEDAOLAI,ERYANGHUATAN、JIAWANJIANQIDENGDESHIFANGJUNDEDAOYOUXIAOYIZHI。JINGUANZHEIXIEYANJIUYIJINGZHENGSHIWUNIJISHENGWUTANKEYITONGGUOYOUXIAOJIANHUANWENSHIQITIDEPAIFANGJINERYANHUANQIHOUBIANHUA,RANERQIJIANHUANXIAOGUOYUHUANJINGTIAOJIAN(RUWENDUHESHIDU)DENGDENEIZAIGUANXISHANGBUWANQUANQINGXI,RENGXUJINYIBUTANJIU。

WUNIJISHENGWUTANZAICUIHUALINGYUDEYINGYONGZHUYAOBAOKUOFentonFANYINGCUIHUAHETiO2GUANGCUIHUA。LIANGHAODEKONGXIJIEGOU、JIAOGAODEBIBIAOMIANJI、JIAOQIANGDEWUHUAWENDINGXINGHEJIAOKUANDEpHSHIYINGFANWEISHIWUNIJISHENGWUTANJUYOUFentonFANYINGTIXICUIHUAJIZAITIDEQIANZHI。LIRU,GanDENGJIANGWUNIYUDUOZHONGJIATAITIEJIHUAHEWU(RUFe3O4HEFeAl2O4)GONGREJIECHANWUZUOWEIFentonCUIHUAJIZAITIJIANGJIE4-LVFEN,JING5LUNLIANXUJIANGJIEHOU,KESHIXIAN4-LVFENDE100%QUCHU。YINCI,GUANGQUDONGDEFUZAI TiO2DEGUANGCUIHUAJIYESHIJINNIANLAIWUNIJISHENGWUTANYINGYONGDEYANJIUREDIANZHIYI。ManikDENGTICHULEYIZHONGLIYONGWUNIHETAIJINZIQIAOJUTANG,GONGREJIEHECHENGTiO2/Fe/Fe3CZAHUASHENGWUTANFUHECAILIAODEJIANDANQIEJINGJIYOUXIAODEFANGFA,HECHENGDETiO2/Fe/Fe3CSHENGWUTANFUHECAILIAOTONGGUOGUANGFANYINGHEH2O2HUOHUADUIYAJIAJILANDEJIANGJIEBIAOXIANCHULIANGHAODECUIHUAXINGNENG。

DIANJICAILIAOSHIMUQIANSHANGYEHUAZUICHENGGONGHEZUIGUANGFANDEDIANJICAILIAO,YESHIWUNIJISHENGWUTANYINGYONGDEQIANYANYANJIUZHIYI。BaoDENGXITONGYANJIULEBUTONGWENDU(400、500、600、700 ℃)TIAOJIANXIAREJIEZHIBEIWUNISHENGWUTANDIANHUAXUEXINGNENGDEBIANHUA,JIEGUOBIAOMING,REJIEWENDUZHUYAOTONGGUOYINGXIANGKUNDEHANLIANG,JINERGAIBIANSHENGWUTANDEYANGHUAHAIYUANRONGLIANG。QIZHONG,600 ℃ZHIBEIDESHENGWUTANJUYOUZUIQIANGDEDIANZIZHUANYINENGLI,ZAIJIAOGAODEREJIEWENDU(700 ℃)XIA,REJIECHANWUDESUOHEDUHEFANGGOUXINGZUIGAO,SHENGWUTANFANGDIANRONGLIANGJIAOGAO,XUNHUANXINGNENGHAO,WEIWUNISHENGWUTANZUOWEIDIANCHIZHENGJICAILIAOTICHULEKEXINGXINGFANGAN。

06 JIELUN

SUIZHEWOGUOWUNICHUZHIXIANGGUANLINGYUZHENGCEHEBIAOZHUNDEBUDUANWANSHAN,SHIXIANWUNICHUZHIDEYAOQIUJINYIBUTIGAO,TANHUAJISHUYIQIDUTEDEYOUSHI,SHIXIANLEWUNIDEJIANLIANGHUA、WENDINGHUA、WUHAIHUAHEZIYUANHUACHUZHIDEYAOQIU,YICHENGWEIWUNIYANJIUREDIANWENTI,BEISHOUXUEZHEGUANZHU,JINNIANLAIFAWENLIANGXUNSUZENGJIA。ZAIHOUYIQINGSHIDAI,WEICHEDISHAMIEWUNIZHONGKENENGCUNZAIDEXINGUANBINGDU,WUNITANHUALIEJIEJISHUDEYANJIUHEYINGYONGDEDAOJINYIBUDITUIJIN。ZAIWEILAIDEYANJIUZHONGKENENGHUIMIANLINRUXIADETIAOZHAN:(1)JIANGDIWUNIJISHENGWUTANZHIBEIGUOCHENGZHONGDEWENDUHENENGHAO,JIDAIYANFAJINGJI、LVSEHEANQUANDETANHUAJISHU;(2)TANHUAGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEREJIEQIHEREJIEYOUYOUXIAOLIYONGTUJINGSHANGBUMINGXI,KENENGCHENGWEIZHIYUEWUNITANHUAJISHUYINGYONGTUIGUANGDEYINSUZHIYI;(3)WUNITANHUAGUOCHENGZHONGWURANWUDEXINGTAIZHUANHUAYUGUDINGJIZHIYOUDAIJINYIBUTANJIU;(4)WUNIJISHENGWUTANZUOWEIHUANJINGGONGCHENGCAILIAO,DUIRENTI、DONGZHIWUJIHUANJINGQIANZAIDEFENGXIAN,RENGCUNZAIJIAODUOZHENGYI,JIDAIXITONGYANJIU。SUIZHESHANGSHUWENTIDEKEFU,WUNITANHUAZHIBEISHENGWUTANJISHUJIANGDEDAOGUANGFANDEYINGYONG,CONGERZHENZHENGSHIXIANWUNIDEKEXUEHUACHUZHI。

ZUOZHEJIANJIE:

孙东晓,高级工程师,中铁上海工程局集团市政环保工程有限公司 副总经理、总工程师,上海市科技专家库成员,长期从事市政环保项目建设与科技研发。

GENGDUOXINXI:

SUNDONGXIAO1,DONGZHIQIANG1,LIUXUEMING1,*,ZHANGJICHEN2,CHENQIANBAO1,LEISICONG3(1. ZHONGTIESHANGHAIGONGCHENGJUJITUANSHIZHENGHUANBAOGONGCHENGYOUXIANGONGSI,SHANGHAI 201900;2. TONGJIDAXUEHUANJINGKEXUEYUGONGCHENGXUEYUAN,SHANGHAI 200092;3. FUJIANSHENGJIANZHUKEXUEYANJIUYUANYOUXIANGONGSI,FUJIANFUZHOU 350100)