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刘俊国:渐进式生态修复土壤

发布时间:2021-07-05来源:人民日报海外版

土壤与人类福祉休戚相关。土壤支撑着人类粮食安全。全球约95%的食物直接或间接产于土壤。土壤储存了1.5万亿吨有机碳并调节着温室气体排放,对于减缓全球变暖起着重要作用。健康的土壤能够涵养水源、净化水质,具有重要的生态服务功能。土壤中的生物多样性占地球生物多样性总量25%以上,是未来生物技术发展的重要基因库。


土壤退化是人类可持续发展面临的重要挑战之一。全球33%的土地因侵蚀、盐碱化、酸化和化学污染而出现中度到高度退化。中国政府十分重视土壤污染治理和修复工作。2016年,国务院印发《土壤污染防治行动计划》,拉开了土壤污染治理飞跃式发展的帷幕。2019年《土壤污染防治法》正式实施,标志着土壤治理与修复进入了有法可依的阶段。截至2020年末,全国各省、自治区、市已公布建设用地土壤污染风险管控和修复名录中,涉及需修复地块500余块。土壤污染加重趋势得到初步遏制,生态修复取得了显著成绩。土壤治理与修复从理论到技术再到实践,都有了很好的创新和快速的发展。


目前,“美丽中国”和生态文明建设对土壤修复的绿色可持续性提出了更高要求,因此需要有新理念、新思路和新方法。笔者建议:


DIYI,YONGJIANJINSHISHENGTAIXIUFULILUNZHIDAOTURANGWURANZHILI,JIFENJIEDUAN、FENBUZHOUDICAIQU“HUANJINGZHILI、SHENGTAIXIUFU、ZIRANHUIFU”DECELVE,DUISHOUSUNSHENGTAIXITONGJINXINGXUNXUJIANJINDEXIUFU。“HUANJINGZHILI”SHIZHENDUIZAOZHONGDUPOHUAIDESHENGTAIXITONGERCAIQUDEYUFANGYUZHILICUOSHI。HUANJINGZHILIBAOKUOQUCHUTURANGZHONGDEYOUDUWURANWU、QINGCHUGUTIFEIQIWU、GAILIANGTURANGYITIGAOTURANGDESHENGCHANLIDENG。“SHENGTAIXIUFU”SHIZHENDUIYANZHONGSHOUSUNDESHENGTAIXITONGCAIQURENGONGCUOSHI,JIANGSHENGTAIXITONGXIUFUDAOMOUYICANZHAOZHUANGTAIDEGUOCHENG。“ZIRANHUIFU”SHIZHIZAIQINGDUTUIHUAHUOJINGXIUFUDEDAOHENDAGAISHANDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHENGTAIXITONGYIKAOZISHENHUIFUNENGLI,CHAOZHEJIANKANGFANGXIANGFAZHANDECELVE。TURANGJUYOUSHENGTAIDANXING,ZAISHOUDAOGANRAOHOUHUIXUNSUDIZIWOHUIFU。JIANJINSHISHENGTAIXIUFULILUNDEZHONGDIANZAIYU“DUIZHENGXIAYAO”,YINDIZHIYI,XUANZEHESHIDEXIUFUMOSHIHELUJING,DADAOHUIFUTURANGJIANKANGHESHENGTAIGONGNENGDEMUDE。


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第三,充分发挥新技术在土壤污染治理中的作用。与地面监测相比,卫星遥感可节省大量人力、物力和时间,更容易获得范围广泛的监测结果。无人机具有成本低、操作简单、数据获取便捷、搭载平台多样、数据质量高等优势。建议充分发挥卫星遥感、无人机等新技术作用,开展更大范围的、动态的土壤监测,辅助土壤治理与修复工程的实施。


DISI,TANSUOSHENGTAIXIUFUYUSHENGJIGAISHANDESHUANGYINGMOSHI。YOUYANJIUBIAOMINGZAISHENGTAICUIRUODIQU,XIUFUGONGCHENGYEKENENGHUIDAOZHISHIYELVZENGJIAYIJIJUMINSHOURUJIANSHAO。YINCI,ZAIKAIZHANTURANGXIUFUSHI,XUYAOTEBIEZHUYIXUANZEHESHIDESHENGTAIXIUFUMOSHI,JIEHELVSECHANYEFAZHAN,SHIXIANSHENGTAIXIUFUXIAOYIZUIDAHUA,ZAOFUYUMIN。ZHIYOUTANSUOCHULESHENGTAIXIUFUHEJUMINSHENGJIGAISHANDESHUANGYINGMOSHI,CAINENGBIANLVSHUIQINGSHANWEIJINSHANYINSHAN,SHIXIANRENTUHEXIE。

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